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Kamis, 06 Oktober 2011

GERUNDS



   Gerunds

Gerund adalah kata benda yang berasal dari kata kerja ditambah –ing, misalnya swimming, eating, fishing, shopping, dancing, dan singing. Bila diperhatikan, gerund mempunyai bentuk yang sama dengan present participle, bedanya gerund berfungsi sebagai kata benda, sedangkan present participle sebagai kata sifat yang menerangkan kata benda.

Dalam kalimat, gerund berfungsi sebagai:
a. subjek (subject)
b. pelengkap subjek (subjective complement)
c. objek langsung (direct object)
d. objek preposisi (object of preposition)
e. aposisi (appositive)


Subject
Gerund sebagai subjek pokok kalimat, contoh:
- Swimming is good service.
- Your singing is very beautiful.

- Studying needs time and patience.
- Playing tennis is fun.
- Reading English is easier than speaking it.

Subjective Complement
Gerund sebagai pelengkap subjek dalam kalimat biasanya selalu didahului to be yang terletak di antara subject dan subjective complement, contoh:
- My favorite sport is running.
- My favorite activity is reading.


Direct Object
Gerund sebagai objek langsung dalam kalimat, contoh:
- I enjoy dancing.
- She likes dancing.

- Thank you for your coming.
- I hate arguing.

Object of Preposition
Gerund sebagai objek preposisi yang terletak setelah preposisi. Preposisi yang sering dipakai adalah of, on, no, with, without, at for, after, before, because of, to, like, about, for, by, in.
Contoh:
- He is tired of gambling.
- I am fond of eating bakso.

- He insisted on seeing her.
- I have no objection to hearing your story.
- You will not be clever without studying.
- They are good at telling funny stories.
- In sleeping I met you in the park.

Appositive
Gerund sebagai aposisi atau penegas dalam kalimat, contoh:
- My hobby, fishing, is interesting.
- I do not like quarrelling, a useless job.

My hobby is fishing dan fishing is interesting diletakkan bersebelahan dalam sebuah kalimat sebagai appositive (fishing adalah aposisi dari my hobby), begitu juga contoh kalimat dibawahnya.
In English, the gerund is identical in form to the present participle (ending in -ing) and can behave as a verb within a clause (so that it may be modified by an adverb or have an object), but the clause as a whole (sometimes consisting of only one word, the gerund itself) acts as a noun within the larger sentence. For example: Eating this cake is easy.
In "Eating this cake is easy," "eating this cake," although traditionally known as a phrase, is referred to as a non-finite clause in modern linguistics. "Eating" is the verb in the clause, while "this cake" is the object of the verb. "Eating this cake" acts as a noun phrase within the sentence as a whole, though; the subject of the sentence is the non-finite clause, specifically eating.
Other examples of the gerund:
  • I like swimming. (direct object)
  • Swimming is fun. (subject)
Not all nouns that are identical in form to the present participle are gerunds. [1] The formal distinction is that a gerund is a verbal noun – a noun derived from a verb that retains verb characteristics, that functions simultaneously as a noun and a verb, while other nouns in the form of the present participle (ending in -ing) are deverbal nouns, which function as common nouns, not as verbs at all. Compare:
  • I like fencing. (gerund, an activity, could be replaced with "to fence")
  • The white fencing adds to the character of the neighborhood. (deverbal, could be replaced with an object such as "bench")

[edit] Double nature of the gerund

As the result of its origin and development the gerund has nominal and verbal properties. The nominal characteristics of the gerund are as follows:
  1. The gerund can perform the function of subject, object and predicative:
    • Smoking endangers your health. (subject)
    • I like making people happy. (object)
  2. The gerund can be preceded by a preposition:
    • I'm tired of arguing.
  3. Like a noun the gerund can be modified by a noun in the possessive case, a possessive adjective, or an adjective:
    • I wonder at John's keeping calm.
    • Is there any objection to my seeing her?
    • Brisk walking relieves stress.
The verbal characteristics of the gerund include the following:
  1. The gerund of transitive verbs can take a direct object:
    • I've made good progress in speaking Basque.
  2. The gerund can be modified by an adverb:
    • Breathing deeply helps you to calm down.
  3. The gerund has the distinctions of aspect and voice.
    • Having read the book once before makes me more prepared.
    • Being deceived can make someone feel angry.

[edit] Verb patterns with the gerund

Verbs that are often followed by a gerund include admit, adore, anticipate, appreciate, avoid, carry on, consider, contemplate, delay, deny, describe, detest, dislike, enjoy, escape, fancy, feel, finish, give, hear, imagine, include, justify, listen to, mention, mind, miss, notice, observe, perceive, postpone, practice, quit, recall, report, resent, resume, risk, see, sense, sleep, stop, suggest, tolerate and watch. Additionally, prepositions are often followed by a gerund.
For example:
  • I will never quit smoking.
  • We postponed making any decision.
  • After two years of deciding, we finally made a decision.
  • We heard whispering.
  • They denied having avoided me.
  • He talked me into coming to the party.
  • They frightened her out of voicing her opinion.

[edit] Verbs followed by a gerund or a to-infinitive

[edit] With little change in meaning
advise, recommend and forbid:
These are followed by a to-infinitive when there is an object as well, but by a gerund otherwise.
  • The police advised us not to enter the building, for a murder had occurred. (Us is the object of advised.)
  • The police advised against our entering the building. (Our is used for the gerund entering.)
consider, contemplate and recommend:
These verbs are followed by a to-infinitive only in the passive or with an object pronoun.
  • People consider her to be the best.She is considered to be the best.
  • I am considering sleeping over, if you do not mind.
begin, continue, start; hate, like, love, prefer
With would, the verbs hate, like, love, and prefer are usually followed by the to-infinitive.
  • I would like to work there. (more usual than working)
When talking about sports, there is usually a difference in meaning between the infinitive and gerund (see the next section).
[edit] With a change in meaning
like, love, prefer
In some contexts, following these verbs with a to-infinitive when the subject of the first verb is the subject of the second verb provides more clarity than a gerund.
  • I like to box. (I enjoy doing it myself.)
  • I like boxing. (Either I enjoy watching it, I enjoy doing it myself, or the idea of boxing is otherwise appealing )
  • I do not like gambling, but I do like to gamble."
dread, hate and cannot bear:
These verbs are followed by a to-infinitive when talking subjunctively (often when using to think), but by a gerund when talking about general dislikes.
  • I dread / hate to think what she will do.
  • I dread / hate seeing him.
  • I cannot bear to see you suffer like this. (You are suffering now.)
  • I cannot bear being pushed around in crowds. (I never like that.)
forget and remember:
When these have meanings that are used to talk about the future from the given time, the to-infinitive is used, but when looking back in time, the gerund.
  • She forgot to tell me her plans. (She did not tell me, although she should have.)
  • She forgot telling me her plans. (She told me, but then forgot having done so.)
  • I remembered to go to work. (I remembered that I needed to go to work.)
  • I remembered going to work. (I remembered that I went to work.)
go on:
  • After winning the semi-finals, he went on to play in the finals. (He completed the semi-finals and later played in the finals.)
  • He went on giggling, not having noticed the teacher enter. (He continued doing so.)
mean:
  • I did not mean to scare you off. (I did not intend to scare you off.)
  • Taking a new job in the city meant leaving behind her familiar surroundings. (If she took the job, she would have to leave behind her familiar surroundings.)
regret:
  • We regret to inform you that you have failed your exam. (polite or formal form of apology)
  • I very much regret saying what I said. (I wish that I had not said that.)
try:
When a to-infinitive is used, the subject is shown to make an effort at something, attempt or endeavor to do something. If a gerund is used, the subject is shown to attempt to do something in testing to see what might happen.
  • Please try to remember to post my letter.
  • I have tried being stern, but to no avail.

[edit] Gerunds preceded by a genitive

Because of its noun properties, the genitive (possessive case) is preferred for a noun or pronoun preceding a gerund.
  • We enjoyed their [genitive] singing.
This usage is preferred in formal writing or speaking. The objective case is often used in place of the possessive, especially in casual situations:
  • I do not see it making any difference.
Really, 'I do not see its making any difference' is the correct option.
This may sound awkward in general use, but is still the correct manner in which to converse or write. And this form of gerund is applicable in all relative cases, for instance:
  • He affected my going there.
  • He affected your going there.
  • He affected his/her/its going there.
  • He affected our going there.
  • He affected their going there.
This is because the action, of doing or being, belongs, in effect, to the subject/object (direct or indirect) practising it, thus, the possessive is required to clearly demonstrate that.
In some cases, either the possessive or the objective case may be logical:
  • The teacher's shouting startled the student. (Shouting is a gerund, and teacher's is a possessive noun. The shouting is the subject of the sentence.)
  • The teacher shouting startled the student. (Shouting is a participle describing the teacher. This sentence means The teacher who was shouting startled the student. In this sentence, the subject is the teacher herself.)
Either of these sentences could mean that the student was startled because the teacher was shouting.
Using the objective case can be awkward if the gerund is singular but the other noun is plural. It can look like a problem with subject-verb agreement:
  • The politicians' debating was interesting.
One might decide to make was plural so that debating can be a participle.
  • The politicians debating were interesting.

[edit] Gerunds and present participles

Insofar as there is a distinction between gerunds and present participles, it is generally fairly clear which is which; a gerund or participle that is the subject or object of a preposition is a gerund if it refers to the performance of an action (but present participles may be used substantively to refer to the performer of an action), while one that modifies a noun attributively or absolutely is a participle. The main source of potential ambiguity is when a gerund-participle follows a verb; in this case, it may be seen either as a predicate adjective (in which case it is a participle), or as a direct object or predicate nominative (in either of which cases it is a gerund). In this case, a few transformations can help distinguish them. In the table that follows, ungrammatical sentences are marked with asterisks, per common linguistic practice; it should be noted that the transformations all produce grammatical sentences with similar meanings when applied to sentences with gerunds but either ungrammatical sentences, or sentences with completely different meanings, when applied to sentences with participles.
Transformation
Gerund use
Participle use
(none)
John suggested asking Bill.
John kept asking Bill.
Asking Bill was suggested.
*Asking Bill was kept.
Pronominal substitution
John suggested it.
*John kept it.
Use as a noun
John suggested the asking of Bill.
*John kept the asking of Bill.
Replacement with a finite clause
John suggested that Bill be asked.
*John kept that Bill be asked.
Use with an objective or possessive subject
John suggested our asking Bill.
*John kept his asking Bill.
Asking Bill is what John suggested.
*Asking Bill is what John kept.
Asking Bill John suggested.
*Asking Bill John kept.
None of these transformations is a perfect test, however.

English gerund-like words in other languages

English words ending in -ing are often transformed into pseudo-anglicisms in other languages, where their use is somewhat different from in English itself. In many of these cases, the loanword has functionally become a noun rather than a gerund. For instance, camping is a campsite in Bulgarian, Dutch, French, Greek, Italian, Romanian, Russian, and Spanish; in Bulgarian, Dutch, French, Polish, and Russian parking is a car park; lifting is a facelift in Bulgarian, French, German, Italian, Polish, Romanian, and Spanish. The French word for shampoo is (le) shampooing.

The gerund in popular culture

In the Molesworth books by Geoffrey Willans and Ronald Searle, Searle included a series of cartoons on the private life of the gerund, intended to parody the linguistic snobbery of Latin teachers' striving after strict grammatical correctness and the difficulty experienced by students in comprehending the construction.
Owen Johnson's "Lawrenceville Stories" feature a Latin teacher who constantly demands that his students determine whether a given word is a gerund or a gerundive.
In the new episode of Dan Vs., "The Ninja", after Dan's milk carton exploded from the ninja's shuriken, a teenager said to Dan "Drinking problem much?" and Dan complained that the sentence had no verb, just a gerund.



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